American Art: History of Fine Arts in America читать ~4 мин.
Текст ещё не готов
American ArtHistory, Development & Collections of Painting, Sculpture, Architecture in America. MAIN A-Z INDEX – A-Z of ART MOVEMENTS
No. 5, 1948 (1948) By Jackson Pollock.Reputedly sold for $140 million (2006) See Jackson Pollock’s paintings.
Cow’s Skull: Red, White, and Blue (1931, Metropolitan Museum, NYC) By Georgia O’Keeffe.
SCULPTURESee Best American Sculptors.
American Art (c.1750-2000) This is a short 20 step guide to the history of American art, including painting, sculpture, architecture and contemporary art forms, from Colonial times on. For early culture in the Americas, see: Pre-Columbian Art (1200 BCE-1535 CE). For later native American culture, see: American Indian Art (1000 BCE-1900).
Contents18th Century Colonial Artists • 19th Century American Landscape Art • 19th Century American Portraiture & Genre Painting • 19th Century American Impressionism • 19th Century Architecture • 1900: Development of Modern Art in America • 20th Century American Urban Art • Growth of Indigenous Modern Art in America (1920-1940) • Arrival of Modern Artists From Europe (1920-40) • Abstract Expressionism (1940-1960) • Neo-Dada (1950s): Reaction Against Abstract Expressionism • American Conceptualism (1950s/1960s) • Pop Art (1960s/1970s) • Environmental Art (1960s) • Video Art (1960s on) • Minimalism (1960s) • American Feminist Art (1960s) • Photorealism, Superrealism (1960s, 1970s) • Graffiti Art (1970s, 1980s) • Neo-Pop Art (late 1980s onwards) • 21st Century American Art • Best Art Museums in America • American Art Collectors (1840-2000)
For the history and characteristics of architectural design in the United States, see: American Architecture (1600-present).
Midnight Ride of Paul Revere (1931) Metropolitan Museum, New York.By Grant Wood.
1. 18th Century Colonial Artists American colonial artduring the 17th and 18th centuries was largely confined to portraiture and some landscape painting. The few available opportunities for artists derived from contacts with the colonial class. Important American colonial painters include:
Benjamin West (1738-1820) The "Father of American Painting", active in England where he influenced a number of artists from America, including John Copley, Gilbert Stuart, Allston Washington.
John Singleton Copley (1738-1815) Noted for his Boston and London portraits and history paintings.
Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828) Noted for his portraits of George Washington, Stuart is seen as the greatest 18th century American portrait painter, and the creator of a distinctively American style of art.
Other noted American painters of the 18th century include: the portraitist Ralph Earl (1751-1801) and the portrait/history painter John Trumbull (1756-1843).
American architecture of the colonial era was typically either Georgian, or Neoclassical. The latter encompassed the ’Federal Style’ and Greek Revival designs. American architects of the period include Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), William Thornton (1759-1828), James Hoban (1762-1831), Charles Bulfinch (1763-1844) and Benjamin Latrobe (1764-1820).
2. 19th Century American Landscape Art An independent America offered more opportunity to everyone, including artists. Although photography (invented 1839) eventually replaced painting as a chronicler of events and experience, 19th century America relied on painters to record these things. Portraiture continued to be financially rewarding, but landscapes of the American wilderness were also popular. The two most famous styles of scenic view painting, both highly romantic, were the Thomas Cole-inspired Hudson River school (c.1825-65) and its later offshoot Luminism (c.1850-75). The French plein-air Barbizon School was also influential, while a style known as Tonalism grew up in the 1880s and 90s. Important 19th century American landscape and plein-air painters include:
Thomas Cole (1801-48) Famous for the grandeur and dramatic quality of his wilderness scenes.
George Inness (1825-1894) Brought Barbizon School techniques to America, and helped to define the Impressionistic Tonalist movement.
Frederic Edwin Church (1826-1900) A pupil of Cole, and America’s greatest ever romantic landscape painter, Church criss-crossed the continent, painting tropical forests, waterfalls, volcanoes and icebergs.