Fine Art Photography: Definition, History, Types 4 132Раздел в процессе наполнения и корректировки
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Fine Art PhotographyHistory of Photographic Art, Most Expensive Photos. MAIN A-Z INDEX
ContentsWhat is Fine art Photography? • History of Technical Developments • Use of Photography in Art • Photography as a Fine Art • Pictorialism (c.1885-1915) • Sharp Focus Modernism • 20th-Century Portraiture • Stieglitz (1924-46) • Edward Steichen (1946-62) • John Szarkowski (1962-91) • Galleries • Famous Fine Art Photographers • Collections of Photographic Art • World’s Most Expensive Photographs: Top 16 • Greatest Photographers (Top 200) • For an explanation of camera terminology, see: Art Photography Glossary.
Venetian Canal (1894) Photograph by Alfred Stieglitz, one of the great masters in theart of photography.
HISTORY OF VISUAL ARTSFor a list of important dates aboutmovements, styles, famous artists, up to Post-Modernism, please see:History of Art Timeline.
What is Fine art Photography? Known also as " photographic art", " artistic photography" and so on, the term "fine art photography" has no universally agreed meaning or definition: rather, it refers to an imprecise category of photographs, created in accordance with the creative vision of the cameraman. The basic idea behind the genre, is that instead of merely capturing a realistic rendition of the subject, the photographer is aiming to produce a more personal – typically more evocative or atmospheric – impression. One might simplify this, by saying that fine art photography describes any image taken by a camera where the intention is aesthetic (that is, a photo whose value lies primarily in its beauty – see, Aesthetics) rather than scientific (photos with scientific value), commercial (product photos), or journalistic (photos with news or illustrative value). (See also: Is Photography Art?) Artistic photos have been used frequently in collage art (more correctly, photocollage), by artists like David Hockney (b.1937); and in photomontage , by Dadaists like Raoul Hausmann (1886-1971), Helmut Herzfelde (1891-1968) and Hanna Hoch (1889-1979), by Surrealist artists like Max Ernst (1891-1976), by the avant-garde Fluxus group in the 1960s, and by Pop artists like Richard Hamilton. Photos may also be incorporated into mixed-media installation art, and assemblage art. Today, photography is exhibited in many of the best galleries of contemporary art around the world.
Lynching in Marion, Indiana (1930) A mob of 10, 000 whites broke downthe doors at a county jailhouse toseize these two young negrosaccused of raping a white girl.
"Afghan Girl" (1984) Photographed by Steve McCurry.
History of Technical Developments Invented in the early decades of the 19th century and the subject of numerous advances during the era of Victorian art, photography instantly captured more detail and information than traditional methods of replication, like painting or sculpture. The technical evolution of photography was a piecemeal affair, although a major leap was the discovery of light-sensitive emulsions in 1839, enabling cameras to take black and white photographs. Other important technical advances in the history of photography, included the following.
Photoetchingwas invented in 1822-5 by the Frenchman Joseph Niepce (1765-1833), who also made the first photograph from nature in 1826. Improvements (in the reduction of exposure time, the daguerreotype) were found by German Professor Heinrich Schultz (1687-1744) and French physicist Louis Daguerre (1787-1851), in 1837, with Daguerre being responsible for the first ever photograph of a person in 1839. In parallel to this, in 1832, the French-Brazilian artist and inventor Hercule Florence (1804-79) had fashioned a similar process, called Photographie, while the English inventor and pioneer camera expert William Fox Talbot (1800-77) was busy inventing the calotypeprocess, which produced negative images . His 1840s research into photo-mechanical reproduction led to the discovery of the photoglyphic engravingprocess, the precursor to photogravure . The experimental British scientist John Herschel (1792-1871) invented the cyanotypeprocess and was the first to coin the terms " photography", " negative" and " positive". In 1851, Frederick Scott Archer (1813-57) announced the findings of his research into the wet plate collodionprocess, which significantly improved the accessibility of photography for the public, as did the American innovator George Eastman’s 1884 introduction of roll filmas a replacement for photographic plates . In 1908, the French scientist Gabriel Lippmann (1845-1921) was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics for his improvements in photographic colour reproduction. The development of the photographic process was studded with such discoveries and inventions, and many other advances in photographic glass plates and printing methods were made during the 19th century.