History Painting: Definition, Characteristics, Types 4 132 Раздел в процессе наполнения и корректировки
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History Painting"Istoria" narrative paintings, with edifying historical, religious, or mythological content. MAIN A-Z INDEX – A-Z of PAINTING
Washington Crossing the Delaware (1851) (detail) Metropolitan Museumof Art, New York. By Emanuel GottliebLeutze.
ContentsWhat is History Painting? • What are the Different Types of History Painting? • Renaissance Era (1400-1600) • Examples • The 17th Century • Examples (1600-1700) • The 18th Century • Examples (1700-1800) • The 19th Century • Examples (1800-1900) • The 20th Century • Modern History Paintings
For more about the evolution of painting and sculpture, please see: History of Art Timeline.
The Creation of Adam (1511) From the Genesis fresco in theSistine Chapel. An iconic workof Biblical art by Michelangelo.
The Judgement of Paris (1597-1600) A mythological history paintingby Rubens. National Gallery, London.
The Conspiracy of Claudius Civilis (1661) Swedish National Museum.By Rembrandt.A scene from the rebellion of theformer inhabitants of Holland (the Batavians) against the Romans, as described by the historian Tacitus.
Detail from Guernica (1937) byPablo Picasso (Black and White).Painted in response to the terror-bombing of the Spanish Basquetown of Guernica by the Nazi"Condor" Legion.
EVOLUTION OF ARTFor a guide to the developmentof painting and sculpture, see: History of Art (from 800 BCE).
What is History Painting? (Definition & Characteristics) Derived from the Italian word " istoria" (narrative), the term ’ history painting’ refers to any picture with a high-minded or heroic narrative (message) as illustrated by the exemplary deeds of its figures. Originally dominated by religious paintings, the category expanded during the Italian Renaissance to include works depicting themes from mythology, literature, or history, typically executed in a large-scale format. For the world’s greatest exponents of this type of art, see: Best History Painters.
What are the Different Types of History Painting? There are five main categories of "History Painting": religious, mythological, allegorical, literary and historical. But please note that, whichever category the painting belongs to, its message must be edifying and worthy of depiction.
(1) Religious history paintings . This speaks for itself. It involves any type of picture with a religious narrative – including Christian (Catholic, Protestant), Islamic, Hindu, Buddhist, Jewish or tribal religion. Good examples include: Descent From the Cross (Deposition) (c.1435-40, Prado, Madrid) by Roger van der Weyden, and The Avignon Pieta (1454-6, Louvre, Paris) by Enguerrand Quarton. For general themes from Christianity, see: Christian art (150-2000). For later works, see: Protestant Reformation Art (c.1520-1700), as well as Catholic Counter-Reformation Art (1560-1700).
(2) Mythological history paintings . Myths are stories developed to explain unaccountable phenomena in the world. Mythological painting includes any picture illustrating a mythical story, fable or legend. Popular themes included legends surrounding Greek gods (e.g. Ares, Aphrodite, Apollo, Artemis, Athena, Demeter, Dionysus, Hephaestus, Hera, Hermes, Hestia, Poseidon, and Zeus), or mythical stories of Roman deities like: Apollo, Diana, Juno, Jupiter, Mars, Mercury, Neptune and Venus). Examples include: Bacchus and Ariadne (1520-23) and Bacchanal of the Andrians (1523-5) by Titian; Jupiter and Io (1533, Vienna) by Correggio; Allegory with Venus and Cupid (1540-50) by Bronzino; Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus (1618, Alte Pinakothek, Munich) and Judgement of Paris (1635, National Gallery, London) by Rubens; Abduction of the Sabine Women (1634-5, Metropolitan Museum) and Et in Arcadia Ego (1637, Louvre) by Nicolas Poussin; The Rokeby Venus (1647-51, National Gallery, London) by Velazquez. Suicide of Lucretia (c.1666, Minneapolis Institute of Arts) by Rembrandt van Rijn; The Colossus (1810, Prado, Madrid) by Goya; Saturn Devouring his Son (1819-23, Prado, Madrid) by Goya; Pasiphae (1943, Metropolitan Museum of Art) by Jackson Pollock; and Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion (1944, Tate Collection) by Francis Bacon.
(3) Allegorical history paintings . An allegory is a story containing a hidden meaning. Allegorical pictures typically use people or objects that symbolize (or represent) other people or things. Examples include: Allegory of Good and Bad Government (1338-9, Siena) by Ambrogio Lorenzetti; Garden of Earthly Delights (1500-5, Prado Museum, Madrid) by Hieronymus Bosch; and The Tempest (1508, Venice Academy Gallery) by Giorgione. For a modern example, see: The Artist’s Studio – A Real Allegory (1855, Musee d’Orsay) by Courbet.