Early Renaissance Painting, Italy 3 665Раздел в процессе наполнения и корректировки
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Early Renaissance PaintingCharacteristics of Italian 15th Century Art ( Quattrocento). MAIN A-Z INDEX – A-Z of the RENAISSANCE
Brancacci Chapel Frescoes in theChurch of S. Maria del Carmine, Florence. (1425-8). By Masaccio, one of the most influential artistsof the Renaissance in Florence.
ITALIAN ART 1300-1500For art of the trecento period, see: Pre-Renaissance Painting.For a general guide to theFlorentine Renascimento, see: Renaissance Art.
ContentsThe Early Renaissance in Italy: Characteristics • Tommaso Masaccio (1401-1428) • Fra Filippo Lippi (c.1406-69) • Fra Angelico (c.1400-55) • Paolo Uccello (1397-1475) • Andrea del Castagno (1420-57) • Domenico Veneziano (c.1416-61) • Piero della Francesca (1415-92) • Antonio Pollaiuolo (1432-98) • Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510) • Other Early Renaissance Painters in Florence • Florentine Renaissance Spreads • Andrea Mantegna (1430-1506) • Bellini Family • Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)
Related ResourcesHigh Renaissance Painting (c.1490-1530) • Mannerist Painting, Italy (c.1530-1600)
The Flagellation of ChristBy Piero Della Francesca.Considered to be one of theGreatest Paintings Ever.
CHRONOLOGY OF VISUAL ARTFor details of art movements see: History of Art.For a chronological guide tosee: History of Art Timeline.
WORLD’S BEST ARTFor a list of the Top 10 painters/sculptors: Best Artists of All Time.
The Early Renaissance in Italy: Characteristics (c.1400-1490) Early Renaissance art in Italy was basically a period of experiment, characterized by the styles of certain individual artists rather than by any uniform trend as in the case of the High Renaissance (c.1490-1530) or Mannerism (c.1530-1600). Early Renaissance painting grew up in Florence, from where it spread to such cities as Urbino, Ferrara, Padua, Mantua, Milan and Venice from the middle of the century onwards.
The political climate of Renaissance Italy was frequently unstable, although Florence did provide an intellectual and cultural environment that was very beneficial for the development of art. The prevailing philosophical climate of Humanism, for instance, fostered a tendency, already evident in Florentine painting as early as Giotto (1270-1337), to see the world in human terms. In the early quattrocento, Masaccio (1401-1428) emphasized exclusively the human angle in his painting Expulsion From the Garden of Eden (Brancacci Chapel, Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence), rather than the theological one. Also, both Masaccio in his fresco painting The Holy Trinity (Santa Maria Novella, Florence) and Fra Angelico (c.1400-55) in his San Marco altarpiece seem to focus far more on the human relations between the figures than with the purely devotional aspects of the composition. Similarly, the Renaissance painter became more and more concerned with the relations between the painting and the observer. This particular aspect relied heavily on the invention of the one-point linear perspective system, which in turn derived from new learning and a new vision of the world. The empirical system devised through mathematical studies by the architect Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446) was given theoretical form and universal application by Leon Battista Alberti (1404-72) in his treatise on fine art painting, called Della Pittura.
According to Alberti’s system all parts of a picture have a rational relationship with each other and to the spectator, for the distance the latter is to stand from the painting is controlled by the artist when organizing his perspective construction. This system enables the microcosm of the painting and the world of the observer to become visually one, and the spectator participates, as it were, in what he observes. To fortify the illusion of a painting as a window on the world, quattrocento painters studied the effects of light in nature and how best to represent them in a picture, as well as human anatomy, and the world about them. These characteristics are essentially what separates early Renaissance painting from Late Gothic painting in Italy.
Note: Much of the early work concerning the attribution of paintings was done by the art historian Bernard Berenson (1865-1959), who lived most of his life near Florence, and published a number of highly influential works on the Italian Renaissance across the country.